MLOC Bibliography

MLOC/HD Bibliography

This list consists of papers that have used the Hypocentroidal Decomposition (HD) method of multiple event relocation (Jordan and Sverdrup, 1981). Most of them used the program mloc. The non-mloc ones are mostly early and include Keith Sverdrup as a co-author, using an updated version of the original code implementing HD. The early (pre-2003) mloc papers used the program in an uncalibrated mode, i.e. they made use of improved relative locations but did not attempt to improve knowledge of absolute locations.

Original Description of the Algorithm

  • Jordan, T.H., and Sverdrup, K.A., 1981, Teleseismic location techniques and their application to earthquake clusters in the South-Central Pacific: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 71, no. 4, p. 1105-1130. (PDF)

Uncalibrated Locations

  • Sverdrup, K.A., 1986, Multiple-event relocation of earthquakes on and near the Gorda Ridge: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 13, no. 7, p. 674-677.
  • Sverdrup, K.A., 1987, Multiple-event relocation of earthquakes near the Gorda Rise-Mendocino Fracture Zone intersection: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 14, no. 4, p. 347-350.
  • Bergman, E.A., and Solomon, S.C., 1990, Earthquake swarms on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge – Products of magmatism or extensional tectonics?: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 95, p. 4943.
  • Cronin, V.S., and Sverdrup, K.A., 2003, Multiple-event relocation of historic earthquakes along Blanco Transform Fault Zone, NE Pacific: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 30, p. 2001, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018086.
  • Wolfe, C.J., Bergman, E.A., and Solomon, S.C., 1993, Oceanic transform earthquakes with unusual mechanisms or locations – Relation to fault geometry and state of stress in the adjacent lithosphere: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 98, p. 16187.
  • Bai, L., Bergman, E.A., Engdahl, E.R., and Kawasaki, I., 2007, The 2004 earthquakes offshore of the Kii peninsula, Japan: Hypocentral relocation, source process and tectonic implication: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 165, p. 47, doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2007.07.007.

Calibrated Locations


  • Ritzwoller, M.H., Shapiro, N.M., Levshin, A.L., Bergman, E.A., and Engdahl, E.R., 2003, Ability of a global three-dimensional model to locate regional events: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 108, no. B7, p. 2353-2353, doi: 10.1029/2002JB002167.


  • Bondar, I., Engdahl, E.R., Yang, X.-P., Ghalib, H.A.A., Hofstetter, A., Kirichenko, V., Wagner, R., Gupta, I., Ekström, G., Bergman, E.A., Israelsson, H., and McLaughlin, K.L., 2004, Collection of a reference event set for regional and teleseismic location calibration: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 94, no. 4, p. 1528-1545.
  • Bondar, I., Myers, S.C., Engdahl, E.R., and Bergman, E.A., 2004, Epicentre accuracy based on seismic network criteria: Geophysical Journal International, v. 156, p. 483-496, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02070.x.


  • Rastogi, B.K., Bergman, E.A., and Engdahl, E.R., 2005, Improved earthquake locations and estimation of Pn and Sn path anomalies for India, using multiple event relocation and reference events: Current Science, v. 88, no. 10, p. 1586-1591.
  • Walker, R.T., Bergman, E.A., Jackson, J.A., Ghorashi, M., and Talebian, M., 2005, The 2002 June 22 Changureh (Avaj) earthquake in Qazvin province, northwest Iran: epicentral location, source parameters, surface deformation and geomorphology: Geophysical Journal International, v. 160, p. 707-720.


  • Biggs, J., Bergman, E.A., Emmerson, B., Funning, G.J., Jackson, J.A., Parsons, B.E., and Wright, T.J., 2006, Fault identification for buried strike-slip earthquakes using InSAR: The 1994 and 2004 Al Hoceima, Morocco earthquakes: Geophysical Journal International, v. 166, p. 1347-1362.
  • Parsons, B.E., Wright, T.J., Rowe, P., Andrews, J., Jackson, J.A., Walker, R.T., Khatib, M.M., Talebian, M., Bergman, E.A., and Engdahl, E.R., 2006, The 1994 Sefidabeh (eastern Iran) earthquakes revisited: new evidence from satellite radar interferometry and carbonate dating about the growth of an active fold above a blind thrust fault: Geophysical Journal International, v. 164, p. 202-217, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02655.x.


  • Tatar, M., Jackson, J.A., Hatzfeld, D., and Bergman, E.A., 2007, The 2004 May 28 Baladeh earthquake (Mw 6.2) in the Alborz, Iran: Overthrusting the South Caspian Basin margin, partitioning of oblique convergence and the seismic hazard of Tehran: Geophysical Journal International, v. 170, p. 249-261.


  • Bondar, I., Bergman, E.A., Engdahl, E.R., Kohl, B., Kung, Y.-L., and McLaughlin, K.L., 2008, A hybrid multiple event location technique to obtain ground truth event locations: Geophysical Journal International, v. 175, no. 1, p. 185-201, doi: 10.1111/gji.2008.175.issue-1.


  • Roustaei, M., Nissen, E., Abbassi, M.R., Ghorashi, M., Gholamzadeh, A., Tatar, M., Yamini-Fard, F., Bergman, E.A., Jackson, J.A., and Parsons, B.E., 2009, Vertical separation of surface folding, earthquake faulting, and aftershocks in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt (Iran): Geophysical Journal International, v. 142, p. 1-24.


  • Nissen, E., Yamini-Fard, F., Tatar, M., Gholamzadeh, A., Bergman, E.A., Elliott, J.R., Jackson, J.A., and Parsons, B.E., 2010, The vertical separation of mainshock rupture and microseismicity at Qeshm island in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Iran: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 296, no. 3-4, p. 181-194, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.04.049.


  • Walker, R.T., Bergman, E.A., Szeliga, W., and Fielding, E.J., 2011, Insights into the 1968-1997 Dasht-e-Bayaz and Zirkuh earthquake sequences, eastern Iran, from calibrated relocations, InSAR and high-resolution satellite imagery: Geophysical Journal International,, p. no-no, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05213.x.


  • Copley, A. C., Hollingsworth, J., & Bergman, E. A. (2012). Constraints on fault and lithosphere rheology from the coseismic slip and postseismic afterslip of the 2006 Mw7. 0 Mozambique earthquake. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(B3), B03404.
  • Ghods, A., Rezapour, M., Bergman, E.A., Mortezanejad, G., and Talebian, M., 2012, Relocation of the 2006 Mw 6.1 Silakhour, Iran, Earthquake Sequence: Details of Fault Segmentation on the Main Recent Fault: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 102, no. 1, p. 398-416, doi: 10.1785/0120110009.
  • Yamini-Fard, F., Tatar, M., Hessami, K., Gholamzadeh, A., and Bergman, E.A., 2012, Aftershock analysis of the 2005 November 27 (Mw 5.8) Qeshm Island earthquake (Zagros-Iran): Triggering of strike-slip faults at the basement: Journal of Geodynamics, v. 61, p. 138-147, doi: 10.1016/j.jog.2012.04.005.


  • Aziz Zanjani, A., Ghods, A., Sobouti, F., Bergman, E. A., Mortezanejad, G., Priestley, K., et al. (2013). Seismicity in the western coast of the South Caspian Basin and the Talesh Mountains. Geophysical Journal International, 195(2), 799-814. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt299
  • Hayes, G. P., Bergman, E. A., Johnson, K., Benz, H. M., & Brown, L. (2013). Seismotectonic framework of the 2010 February 27 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake sequence. Geophysical Journal International. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt238
  • Walker, R.T., Bergman, E.A., Elliott, J.R., Fielding, E.J., Ghods, A.R., Ghoraishi, M., Jackson, J.A., Nazari, H., Nemati, M., Oveisi, B., Talebian, M., and Walters, R.J., 2013, The 2010-2011 South Rigan (Baluchestan) earthquake sequence and its implications for distributed deformation and earthquake hazard in southeast Iran: Geophysical Journal International,, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggs109.
  • Walker, R. T., Khatib, M. M., Schnabel, C., Rodés, A., Fattahi, M., Talebian, M., et al. (2013). Co-seismic, geomorphic, and geologic fold growth associated with the 1978 Tabas earthquake fault in eastern Iran. Geomorphology, 1-44.


  • Barnhart, W. D., Benz, H. M., Hayes, G. P., Rubinstein, J. L., & Bergman, E. A. (2014). Seismological and geodetic constraints on the 2011 M w5.3 Trinidad, Colorado earthquake and induced deformation in the Raton Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research, 119(10), 7923-7933.
  • Hayes, G. P., Herman, M. W., Barnhart, W. D., Furlong, K. P., Riquelme, S., Benz, H. M., Bergman, E., Barrientos, S., Earle, P. S., and Samsonov, S. (2014). Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake. Nature, 512(7514), 295-298. doi:10.1038/nature13677
  • Mackey, K. G., & Bergman, E. A. (2014). Ground truth locations for the Mangyshlak Peaceful Nuclear Explosion sequence, western Kazakhstan. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104(4), 1-9.
  • McNamara, D. E., Benz, H. M., Herrmann, R. B., Bergman, E. A., Earle, P. S., Meltzer, A., et al. (2014). The Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 2011 and Aftershock Sequence: Constraints on Earthquake Source Parameters and Fault Geometry. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104(1), 40-54.


  • Elliott, J. R., E. A. Bergman, A. C. Copley, A. R. Ghods, E. K. Nissen, B. Oveisi, M. Tatar, R. J. Walters, and F. Yamini-Fard (2015), The 2013 Mw 6.2 Khaki-Shonbe (Iran) Earthquake: Insights into seismic and aseismic shortening of the Zagros sedimentary cover, Earth and Space Science, 2, doi:10.1002/2015EA000098.
  • Ghods, A., Shabanian, E., Bergman, E. A., Faridi, M., Donner, S., Mortezanejad, G., & Aziz-Zanjani, A. (2015). The Varzaghan-Ahar, Iran, Earthquake Doublet ( Mw6.4, 6.2): Implications for the geodynamics of northwest Iran. Geophysical Journal International, 203(1), 522-540.
  • McNamara, D. E., H. M. Benz, R. B. Herrmann, E. A. Bergman, P. Earle, A. Holland, R. Baldwin, and A. Gassner (2015), Earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms in central Oklahoma reveal a complex system of reactivated subsurface strike-slip faulting, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2742-2749, doi:10.1002/ 2014GL062730.
  • McNamara, D. E., Rubinstein, J. L., Myers, E., Smoczyk, G., Benz, H. M., Williams, R. A., et al. (2015). Efforts to monitor and characterize the recent increasing seismicity in central Oklahoma. The Leading Edge, 1-8.


  • Karasözen, E., Nissen, E., Bergman, E. A., Johnson, K. L., & Walters, R. J. (2016). Normal faulting in the Simav graben of western Turkey reassessed with calibrated earthquake relocations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 121(6), 4553-4574.
  • McNamara, D.E., Yeck, W., Barnhart, W., Schulte-Pelkum, V., Bergman, E., Adhikari, L.B., Dixit, A., Hough, S., Benz, H., Earle, P., Source Modeling of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal (Gorkha) Earthquake Sequence: Implications for Geodynamics and Earthquake Hazards, Tectonophysics (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2016.08.004
  • Yeck, W. L., Weingarten, M., Benz, H. M., McNamara, D. E., Bergman, E. A., Herrmann, R. B., et al. (2016). Far-field pressurization likely caused one of the largest injection induced earthquakes by reactivating a large preexisting basement fault structure. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(19), 10,198-10,207.


  • Nealy, J. L., Benz, H. M., Hayes, G. P., Bergman, E. A., & Barnhart, W. D. (2017). The 2008 Wells, Nevada, Earthquake Sequence: Source Constraints Using Calibrated Multiple-Event Relocation and InSAR, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 107(3), 1107-1117.
  • Nealy, J. L., Herman, M. W., Moore, G. L., Hayes, G. P., Benz, H. M., Bergman, E. A., & Barrientos, S. E. (2017). 2017 Valparaíso earthquake sequence and the megathrust patchwork of central Chile. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(17), 8865-8872.


  • Karasözen, E., Nissen, E., Büyükakpınar, P., Cambaz, M. D., Kahraman, M., Kalkan Ertan, E., Abgarmi, B., Bergman, E.A., Ghods, A.R. and A. Arda Özacar (2018). The 2017 July 20 Mw 6.6 Bodrum-Kos earthquake illuminates active faulting in the Gulf of Gökova, SW Turkey. Geophysical Journal International, 214(1), 185-199.


  • Aflaki, M., Mousavi, Z., Ghods, A.R., Shabanian, E., Vajedian, S. and M. Akbarzadeh 2019. The 2017 Mw 6 Sefid Sang earthquake and its implication for the geodynamics of NE Iran, Geophysical Journal International, 218, 2, p. 1227-1245,
  • Gaudreau, É., Nissen, E., Bergman, E. A., Benz, H. M., Tan, F., & Karasözen, E. (2019). The August 2018 Kaktovik Earthquakes: Active Tectonics in Northeastern Alaska Revealed With InSAR and Seismology. Geophysical Research Letters, 117(4), B03401–9.
  • Karasözen, E., Nissen, E., Bergman, E.A. and A.R. Ghods (2019). Seismotectonics of the Zagros (Iran) From Orogen-Wide, Calibrated Earthquake Relocations, Journal of Geophysical Research,
  • Nissen, E., Ghods, A., Karasözen, E., Elliott, J.R. Barnhart, W.D., Bergman, E.A., Hayes, G.P, Jamal-Reyhani, M., Nemati, M., Tan, F., Abdulnaby, W., Benz, H.M., Shahvar, M.P., Talebian, M. and L. Chen (2019). The 12 November 2017 Mw 7.3 Ezgeleh-Sarpolzahab (Iran) earthquake and active tectonics of the Lurestan arc. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124.
  • Savidge, E., Nissen, E., Nemati, M., Karasözen, E., Hollingsworth, J., Talebian, M., Bergman, E.A., Ghods, A.R., Ghorashi, M., Kosari, E., Rashidi, A. and A. Rashidi (2019). Geophysical Journal International 217, 2, p. 909-925,


  • Pousse-Beltran, L., Nissen, E., Bergman, E. A., Cambaz, M. D., Gaudreau, É., Karasözen, E., & Tan, F. (2020). The 2020 Mw 6.8 Elazığ (Turkey) Earthquake Reveals Rupture Behavior of the East Anatolian Fault. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(13), 319.
  • Soto Cordero, L., Meltzer, A., Bergman, E. A., Hoskins, M., Stachnik, J. C., Agurto Detzel, H., et al. (2020). Structural Control on Megathrust Rupture and Slip Behavior: Insights From the 2016 Mw 7.8 Pedernales Ecuador Earthquake. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 125(2), S225–28.

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